The United States currently maintains an asymmetric advantage in the application of economic pressure on partners and adversaries to achieve its national goals, based on its immense economy and position in the middle of the world’s economic activity. But, it is not certain that this advantage will persist in the future or that it will be as strong, as other countries expand and develop economically. This issue brief, authored by Richard Nephew, Program Director for Economic Statecraft, Sanctions and Energy Markets at the Center on Global Energy Policy, argues that the United States should consider the possibility and implications of such a global environment and adjust its sanctions policies accordingly. Nephew is a former director for Iran at the U.S. National Security Council and was a member of the U.S. nuclear negotiating team with Iran from August 2013 to December 2014. The views expressed here are his own.