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What do investors and infrastructure developers think about the Paris Agreement? What impact do they believe it will have on the availability of capital for clean energy? David Sandalow, Keith Benes and Caitlin Augustin report on the results of a survey on these topics. 

utility
Research
Report

As U.S. policy makers and utility stakeholders prepare for the utility of the future, comparisons are often made to the transformation of the telecommunications industry due to wireless technologies. However, A.J. Goulding indicates that the near-death and subsequent rejuvenation of the U.S. rail system over nearly two centuries also offers lessons for the power sector as it adapts its strategies and regulatory philosophies while planning for the utility of the future.

Research
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Gonzalo Escribano outlines the degenerating security conditions in Northern Africa, raising concerns about the ability of Algeria, an OPEC nation, to weather the resulting economic, political and security shocks, and inviting comparisons between the current situation and the catastrophic events experienced by the country during the 1986-1988 oil price collapse and its aftermath. The report discusses the extent to which low oil prices could foster an environment for economic and political reforms, and the benefits that the international community, specifically Europe, could derive from taking advantage of this moment in time to press for new energy policies that improve both supply and overall security.

Research
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Richard Nephew and David Mortlock outline implications of the UK's decision to withdraw from the European Union in relation to the view and execution of economic sanctions policies in both regions. 

Research
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Beyond the humanitarian concerns that exist, Venezuela has become a supply risk for oil markets. Luisa Palacios explores the increasing risks posed by the troubles in this OPEC nation’s oil patch and the unprecedented economic, social and political crisis. The report notes that while the decline in production has yet to translate into a significant fall in oil exports, the most severe threats to the oil market from Venezuela are likely yet to come.

Research
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Tatiana Mitrova provides detailed evidence of cooperation between Russia and China in the context of their political and commercial relationship. 

Research
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Bob Hallmann puts forward a series of recommendations to improve communications and overall situational awareness between the private and public sectors to facilitate effective response to fuel emergencies. The report concludes that the current voluntary system of information sharing is inadequate to the needs of the public sector and recommends creating mandatory requirements at various levels to address fuel crises.

Research
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Co-authors Benjamin Leard, Joshua Linn, and Virginia McConnell examine the effect low gasoline prices are having on this policy lever. 

Research
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Richard Nephew reports on six months' implementation of the nuclear deal, particularly with respect to sanctions relief. He concludes that sanctions relief has been stalled as much by concerns over residual sanctions as domestic regulatory factors and low oil prices globally.

Research
Report

This study contains a number of scenario studies to assess the share of Russian natural gas in the European natural gas mix going forward. The authors conclude that remarkable little changes in the European natural gas mix in the scenarios under study, and that absent very drastic policy interventions Russian natural gas will continue to play a prominent role in the EU.

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